FAMILY NAME: MURIDAE
RATS ARE HARMFUL SPECIES FOR ECONOMY:
Rats destroy our food in the fields, orchards and poultry feed, cattle, during processing, transport and storage, as to the supermarket, restaurant or at home. What we do not eat, they can also damage or pollution caused by feces, urine or hair of them.
Food losses worldwide caused by the horrible mouse. Experts estimate the number of food annually destroyed by mice enough to feed 200 million people.
In buildings, the rats out doors, floors, ceilings and walls as a result of the bite out of them as well as digging. We also often bite out of water pipes or electrical wires cause accidents such as fires, floods, explosions, equipment failure or power loss. And in the age of high technology today, mice are capable of causing losses of millions of dollars in an unexpected way in the manufacturing sector as they devoured nest or waste in computers and equipment there is a high sensitivity, the system stops the machine.
Besides direct damage economic (including health care costs), we also have a very expensive cost for controlling the mouse. Particularly in the US, the annual cost for the program is mouse controlled approximately 120 million dollars. Worldwide, the cost of controlling the mouse can be up to several billion dollars.
CLASSIFICATION OF MOUSE:
Mouse: Mus musculus (Linnaeus)
They were taken to the West through the first merchant ship and immigrants. Because they are small in size so they are easy to hide, and the fact that we need an amount of food and space so small that they are able to survive in almost any environment. Unless people are kind of the mice frozen mammals and most popular on Earth. Mice are rodents harm our number one.
Mice have a tiny body, piece. Adults weigh from 20 to 30 grams. Large ears, tail or without hair and long in both the head and body attack. Usually dark gray fur on the back and white on the belly gray, but there may be a lot of different colors. Albino, black, between black and white has been seen in the laboratory. We can distinguish the mice with rats the size of the head and hindquarters.
Some small rodents and even rarer species like hamsters mice, kangaroo also enters our buildings located near the edge of a forest or a contract, and they can be confused with the mouse. Can distinguish between a hamster and mouse easily with their unique properties
GENERAL PROPERTIES AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY ON:
Like all pests, understanding the biology and habits of rats is very important to get a control program to be effective. The fertility of rats was as terrifying (though they often speak too up). When their living conditions, good (plenty of food, water, shelter) mice can proliferate rapidly. However, when the difficult living conditions, the entire amount of the mouse as well as their reproduction will be reduced significantly. The following information will provide information on the fertility of mice under normal conditions.
Females breed about 4 to 7 young per litter and pregnancy period is 19 days. Offspring born yet opened his eyes and hairless. Approximately 7 to 10 days will grow fur, nose and eyes will open. Period from 3 to 4 weeks, the chick will beef short distance away outside the nest, eating hard foods and explore their surroundings. Females lay only about 8 litters over a lifetime, although if the favorable conditions, we have the ability to just 24 to 28 days they will lay a litter. About 5 to 8 weeks, the genital organs of offspring will be completed. The normal life of a wild mouse is about 1 year or less.
At a certain level, the house mouse livelihoods depend on the circumstances and the specific environment. Hard to describe the lifestyle of normal levels of mice, rats or any other animal. Thus the pest control experts impaired must always remember that the mouse is not always the same way of life also. Control program must meet each rotation and specific cases. However, because of the specific objectives, a number of common characteristics of how to live the life of mice with and around humans can be created.
In the city, the house mouse can live through life inside the building. In the suburbs, the house mouse can live inside the house, but they mainly live in areas outside such as grass, bush or near the foot of foundation, in warehouses, garages, or in the basement home. Outside, the house mouse eating grass seeds, insects, or any kind of food that we earn. In the fall when food resources become scarce (especially when cold weather), some children will move into the unoccupied buildings.
Once inside the mice nests near food sources, and once we have established organizations, they will live close to the buildings, moving a short distance between a food source and nest. A good team is very important for reproductive success and survival of the mice. This organization provides warmth and safety for both the child and the mother. Inside the house, nest is usually made in between the walls, cabinets, ceilings and the space inside the drawers and in the large equipment (such as refrigerators or stoves feet), in the storage box, cabinet desk or stuffed in the instruments. Outside, a mouse nest in piles of garbage, the underground cave. The team may be made of paper, cotton or any other soft material smaller bite out forming a soft mattress. When not available a good position to make the team, to adapt quickly to proceed. For example, they have been found nesting in the flesh inside the cold storage temperature below 0 degrees.
Mice explore the positions in their territory every day and become very familiar with the way to poke the source of food, drinks, shops and places of refuge when meeting the enemy. When there are changes, they will respond by investigators from the changes.
When carrying out the work, the experts should be remembered that, the territory of the mouse may have three directions as follows.
In areas where infected rats, mice go for food at night and most powerful evening around dusk and before dawn. With buildings that lit continuously, the mouse often works best in quiet times. Most cases occur in the city during the day usually mice indicate that this area a lot of infected rats, although there are exceptions.
Adults eat about 3 to 4 grams of food per day. Rats will eat almost anything, but we like the grains or more particles. Meat, peanuts, peanut butter and many other sweet liquids and candy were they taken away. Mice even cannibalism. Especially when food sources are scarce or when difficult. This experts often see when they go to check the live mouse trap that has several children simultaneously suffer from the same trap, a child (the strongest) often kill and eat the other. In buildings that infected many German cockroaches, mice will catch me and eat cockroaches (because cockroaches can provide a protein and moisture rich).
Mice need a amount of food and drink very little to survive. When we met a lot of water, they will drink enthusiastically about 3 to 9 mm per day. Mice can live without water because they can get enough water they need from their food source. Moreover, mice with special body functions to help them have the ability to hold water and / or produce water while water scarce or when drought.
NORWAY RATS (CHUOTCONG): Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout)
Rats also have names like the rats, brown rats, rats, water rats, gray rats. We first enters the United States through the merchant ships and immigrants around 1775. Now they are widely distributed mice in America, is found in all states (although in some state, the roof rat is more common). Rats loudest, strongest, most aggressive and able to adapt to survive and reproduce in cold climate areas with better roof rats and other mice.
Rats with solid body, adults weighing between 200 to 500 grams. There is also a weight heavier than this (they say so on that they are as big as cats whenever they see), but that is very rare. Their feathers hard and brownish to reddish, the abdomen is white gold, but there are many different colors including black. Blunt nose, small ears, and do not blink when tightly pulled down. Scaly tail and almost hairless (a quick way to distinguish between the roof rats and that is dragging the body back toward the tail. The tail of the rat will not reach the ears).
GENERAL PROPERTIES AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY ON:
The moment of maximum fertility of rats in the fall and spring of the year, down to the hot summer and cold winter. After intercourse and a pregnancy of about 22 days, the mother will lay a litter of mice between 8 to 12 offspring. At birth, the offspring hairless and has not opened his eyes. After about 9 to 14 days the eyes will open and from 10 to 15 days after they’re weaned. At this time, the pups begin to go out of the nest a short distance, to imitate the mother to become familiar with the surroundings, food sources, hideouts and burrowing. Child development child sex after about three months of age, although in favorable conditions, they may just 8 weeks. Every 4 to 5 days to estrus females and they can intercourse within one or two days after birth. Average one female mice born from 4 to 7 litters per year and feed about 20% or more per year. If raised, the rats can live up to three years, but in natural conditions, they live an average of 5 to 12 months.
Like mice, rats animals thuột social and living in groups. Thus, some of the mice lived a similar rat, but we have some specific differences will be discussed below.
In general, rats are digging animals. So they often nest outside buildings, in the underground caves. On the farm, we live in the sheds, barn, stables. In cities, rats nesting in the ground as open space. It is also possible to nest and spend their lives inside buildings in the city. Rats live in populated areas, all food storage areas, hangars, warehouses, hotels, zoos, sewers, landfill … They also frequently be found living in around the pond, the grass in the park.
Rats need around 25 to 39 grams of food per day. They prefer foods high in protein and high bonhydro. They also seem to prefer foods such as cereals, meat, fish, cattle feed, poultry, fresh fruits and vegetables. The search will live outside food sources are available, or they will attack the buildings at night to find food and return to the cave after eating. The mice living in the fields and forests, it will kill and eat smaller species of mammals and insects. At the bottom of the drain, they will kill and eat cockroaches US.
Rats need 15 to 30 ml of water per day when eating dry food, but they will need less if wet food source available. Unlike mice, rats can not live long without water. Inside and around the buildings, rats get water directly from sinks and toilets, rainwater pit, morning dew, or water leak from the condensation of the pipeline.
When necessary, the rats will climb the stairs, pipes, lines and rough walls to get inside the building or to find food and water.
Like mice, rats activity at night, peak at dusk and before dawn. But when the crowd density, is harassed or hungry, they will appear on the day.
Inside the house, like the nest of rats around the lower floors of the building, but in greater numbers, they can also nest in the attic, in the false ceiling and the floor above. They can nest in the gaps in the walls, under floors, basement, under and behind the office equipment, the pallet of goods.
On the outside, they usually do in underground caves along the wall. Top of mice often appear as short, with a length of 30 to 50cm. When they grow up, start caring family and their numbers grow, customers will be grown up and expanded.
Most of the territory of the rats with a radius of 30 meters to 50 meters from the nest. When large numbers, many food haven, the radius will be smaller. However, if necessary, we can move the 100m or so each day to go for food and drinks. In the city, most of them living inside the park buildings and places can offer a full range of necessities for them.
A number of mice can share food resources, water and roads. They can also share one large cave systems and live close to each other. But when the numbers grow, the competition began to rise. Often, adult males will fight to defend their territory.
MOUSE HOUSE ROOF: Rattus rattus (Linnaeus)
Roof rats also have names such as black rats, mice vessels, mouse-gray belly, Alexandrine rat, and mouse white belly. on the form, the roof rat smaller and slimmer than rats. Adults weigh from 150 to 250 grams. COLOUR usually from dark gray to black. Yellow belly color from white to gray. Spearhead, reaching a possible ear eyes when I pulled down, the tail is long and can reach the nose.
Reproductive characteristics of roof rats generally almost like rats.
GENERAL PROPERTIES AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY ON:
It is thought that the roof rat is dieting mice with human life because they just like to eat seeds, plants such as fresh fruits and vegetables.
Roof rats have names such as natural instinct that these were climbing and often live on the roof or above the high area of the building. They can nest in the trees, along the building, fence or inside the building. They attacked inside line through the roof or inside the home, in a way very similar to the squirrels climb trees. In fact, at night you can see them moving in the trees, along the line, fence. When the number of rats in the area increases, we will expand the nesting area, including underground cave, in the residential area, the factory premises area, the inner area and the lower ground floor garbage dump.